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Home » Tutorials


Audio Codec Comparison Table
April 9, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
A series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of the most popular audio codecs you can find on motherboards.


Everything You Need to Know About the SPDIF Connection
July 18, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the digital audio connection called SPDIF and when and how to use it.


How to Use the SPDIF Output from Sound Blaster X-Fi Sound Cards
July 30, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
A list of all Sound Blaster X-Fi models released to date and how to add SPDIF connectors to them. Updated to include X-Fi Titanium sound cards.


How On-Board Audio Works
February 2, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how the sound card that comes embedded on your motherboard works.


How Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Works
April 21, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
An in-depth explanation about analog-to-digital conversion in a very easy to follow language.


How to Connect 5.1 Speakers to Your PC
December 28, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to connect 6-channel speaker systems to your PC in this step-by-step tutorial.


What is High Definition Audio
December 22, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about High Definition Audio, a high-quality audio standard present on Intel PCI Express chipsets.


How To Connect Your PC to Your Home Stereo or Home Theater
December 7, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to hook your PC to your stereo or receiver in order to enhance you audio experience while playing games, watching videos, listening to music or even editing audio.


Convert your LPs into CDs
April 23, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step tutorial on how to convert your old vinyl records into CDs.


Installing Frontal Audio Plugs
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to correctly connect the frontal audio jacks that many cases have to the motherboard.


How to Record Phone Conversations in the PC
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to build a circuit to record phone conversations using your PC.


Sound Blaster 16 Unsupported Device
October 22, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Sound Blaster 16 audio cards list an "Unknown Device" under Windows 9x. Learn how to correct this problem.



Everything You Need to Know About the PCI Express
July 12, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
Everything you need to know about the PCI Express connection: how it works, versions, slots, and more.


Everything You Need to Know About the Thunderbolt Connection
June 21, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a closer look at the Thunderbolt connection to see how it works.


How To Build Parallel Port Prototypes
October 13, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to build circuits using the PC parallel port.


AGP Bus Tutorial
June 23, 2005 - By Cássio Lima
Everything you need to know about the AGP bus: types, speeds, voltages, etc.


Installing Frontal USB Ports
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to correctly connect the frontal USB ports that many cases have to the motherboard.


Why Serial?
October 25, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Understand why new buses like PCI Express, USB and Serial ATA are using serial communication instead of parallel.


AMR, CNR and ACR slots
October 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn what are the AMR, CNR and ACR slots found on motherboards.



Everything You Need to Know About Digital Camera Lenses
December 10, 2008 - By Sandy Berger
Learn everything you need to know about lenses for digital cameras to make a smarter buying decision.


Everything You Need to Know About Camera Sensors
November 27, 2008 - By Sandy Berger
In this tutorial we wil teach you everything you need to know about one of the most important components of digital cameras: the sensor.


Everything You Need to Know About Megapixels
November 12, 2008 - By Sandy Berger
With the first digital cameras a model with a higher megapixel value was better than one with a lower value. This isn’t necessary true today. Learn why.


Everything You Need to Know About Digital Cameras
October 7, 2008 - By Sandy Berger
Everything average users need to know before buying a digital camera, including types of cameras, megapixels, sensors and more.




How to Convert Cassette Tapes to CDs or MP3 Files
June 20, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to convert old cassette tapes to CDs or MP3 files in this step-by-step tutorial.


How to Clean and Fine-Tune a Tape Deck
June 19, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to clean and fine-tune a tape deck in order to get the best audio quality when converting cassette tapes to MP3 files or audio CDs.


Inside the ”Card-That-Unlocks-All-Cable-Channels“ Scam
June 15, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
A shady individual showed up at our office offering a card that ”unlocks all cable channels.“ Let’s take an in-depth look at this scam.


Everything You Need to Know About TV Technologies
April 10, 2008 - By André Gordirro
Learn how to choose from amongst the several types of television technologies available, like CRT, LCD, Plasma, DLP, LCoS and OLED.


How to Manually Clean Your VCR Heads
July 12, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to clean your VCR heads to get a better image quality.


HDTV Tutorial
April 20, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about HDTV, including its resolutions and a step-by-step guide on how to connect HDTV panels to your PC.


Digital TV Standards
April 19, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn more about the digital television standards that exist around the world (ATSC, ISDB-T and DVB-T) and the difference between them.


Protecting Your PC Against Animals
November 4, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Amazingly enough, you can have ants, hornets, cockroaches and even mice living inseide your computer. Check out our amazing pictures and learn how to avoid such menace.



The Truth About Fluid Dynamic Bearing (FDB) Fans
August 1, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
We disassembled thirteen fans with fluid dynamic bearing to better understand what kind of bearing design they really use. You will be surprised to know that manufacturers use the same name for different things. Check it out.


Anatomy of Computer Fans
June 30, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s make an in-depth trip inside computer fans and explore one of the most misunderstood components, the bearing.


How to Create a Three-Speed Fan Control without Spending a Dime
November 16, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to configure the speed of any fan located inside your PC (CPU, VGA, chipset, case, etc.) to low, medium or high without spending any money at all.


Typical PC Assembling Problems
August 15, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about some common problems related to PC assembling that can cause your PC to overheat, malfunction or prevent it to achieve its maximum performance.


How To Correctly Apply Thermal Paste
January 12, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres and Daniel Barros and Cássio Lima
Here is everything you need to know about thermal paste, including a complete guide full of pictures. Learn how to correctly apply it in order to prevent your CPU from overheating.


How to reduce the noise produced by the PC
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to make a fan control system to reduce the noise produced by your PC fans.


Water Cooling
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn what water cooling is.


ATX Case Cooling Problem
October 17, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Some ATX cases have their power supply fan inverted, overheating your PC.


Hard Disk Fan
August 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Your hard disk may also need some cooling.



All Core i7 Models
October 18, 2013 - By Richard Vertrees and Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres
These are a series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of all Core i7 models released to date. Updated to include ”Haswell“ models.


All Core i5 Models
October 11, 2013 - By Richard Vertrees and Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres
These are a series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of all Core i5 models released to date. Updated to include ”Haswell“ models.


All Core i3 Models
October 3, 2013 - By Richard Vertrees and Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres
These are a series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of all Core i3 models released to date. Updated to include ”Haswell“ models.


All AMD FX CPU Models
October 2, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
A quick reference table comparing the main specifications of all AMD FX processors released so far. Updated to include FX-9590, FX-9370, FX-6350, and FX-4350.


Inside the Intel Haswell Microarchitecture
May 31, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s see what is new with Intel’s Haswell microarchitecture, to be used in the fourth-generation Core i3, Core i5, and Core i7 CPUs.


A Complete List of CPU Sockets
September 20, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A table containing all sockets used by all PC processors released to date, with examples of compatible CPUs.


Everything You Need to Know About the Intel Virtualization Technology
July 9, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the Virtualization Technology (VT) from Intel, how it works, and how to detect if your processor supports it.


Everything You Need to Know About the HyperTransport Bus
October 13, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about the HyperTransport bus used by AMD processors, including the most common mistakes people say about it.


Inside the Intel Ivy Bridge Microarchitecture
October 10, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a look at the Ivy Bridge microarchitecture, which will be used by in the third-generation Core i3, i5, and i7 CPUs, to be released in 2012.


All Phenom Models
October 3, 2011 - By Richard Vertrees and Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres
An updated series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of all Phenom and Phenom II models released to date.


Inside the Intel Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture
December 30, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
Sandy Bridge is the name of the new microarchitecture Intel CPUs will be using starting in 2011. Let’s see what is new.


Inside the AMD Bulldozer Architecture
August 24, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
An in-depth explanation of the forthcoming Bulldozer architecture, which will be used in the AMD processors starting in 2011.


All Mobile Celeron Models
July 28, 2010 - By Rafael Coelho
A series of quick reference tables showing the main specs of all Mobile Celeron (Celeron M) models released to date. Updated.


All Turion Models
May 6, 2010 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Turion 64, Turion X2 and Turion II processors released to date. Updated.


All Atom Models
February 5, 2010 - By Rafael Coelho
A quick reference table comparing the main specs of all Atom models released to date. Updated.


All Core 2 Models
December 21, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres
A series of quick reference tables containing all Core 2 Solo, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad and Core 2 Extreme CPUs released to date. Updated.


All Athlon 64 Models
November 30, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon II X2, Athlon II X3 and Athlon II X4 models released to date. Updated to include the new Athlon II X3 CPU.


All Pentium Dual Core Models
September 14, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Pentium Dual Core released to date. Updated.


All Sempron Models
August 28, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Sempron processors released to date. Updated to include socket AM3 model.


All Core Duo and Core Solo Models
March 31, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Core Duo and Core Solo processors released to date. Updated.


All Celeron Models
March 19, 2009 - By Rafael Coelho and Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Celeron models released to date. Updated to include Celeron Dual Core E1500.


Inside Atom Architecture
September 12, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Atom is a CPU from Intel targeted to laptops and mobile internet devices running normal x86 instructions and dissipating less than 3 W. Let’s take a look at this processor. Including a sneak peak on the future ”Moorestown“platform.


Everything You Need to Know About the CPU C-States Power Saving Modes
September 5, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
The CPU has several power saving modes called C-states. In this tutorial we will explain what these modes are, what they do and the modes supported by each processor.


Inside Intel Nehalem Microarchitecture
August 26, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Nehalem is the codename of the new Intel CPU with integrated memory controller that will reach the market next month and that will be called Core i7. Everything you need to know about this CPU is here.


Everything You Need to Know About The QuickPath Interconnect (QPI)
August 25, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
QuickPath Interconnect is the name of the external bus used by the Intel forthcoming CPUs with integrated memory controller, like the Core i7. In this tutorial we will explain how this bus works.


All Xeon Models
January 21, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Xeon processors released to date, including Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III Xeon, Xeon, Xeon MP, dual-core Xeon and quad-core Xeon. Updated to include 45 nm models.


Maximum CPU Temperature
October 11, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
Learn what is the maximum temperature your CPU can reach without burning and how to measure your CPU current temperature.


All Opteron Models
October 4, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Opteron processors released to date. Updated to include third-generation ("Barcelona") models.


All Pentium 4 Models
September 15, 2007 - By Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Pentium 4 models released to date. Updated.


All Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition Models
September 15, 2007 - By Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition processors released to date. Updated to include 915, 925,935 and 945 Pentium Extreme Edition models.


How The Memory Cache Works
September 12, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
In this tutorial you will learn everything you need to know about cache memory in an easy to follow language.


Inside AMD K10 Architecture
September 3, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about the new K10 architecture that will be used by forthcoming AMD processors, like Phenom and Opteron ”Barcelona“, including roadmaps.


All Pentium M Models
August 16, 2007 - By Cássio Lima
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Pentium M models released to date. Updated to include new models.


How to Upgrade Your CPU
March 9, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
A series of tables showing which processors you can install on your system without replacing your current motherboard.


How to Enable Processor-Based Security
February 27, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to correctly enable NX/EVP/XD/DEP technology on your PC, allowing the CPU to detect malicious code and block it automatically.


Athlon 64 Overclocking
July 20, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to overclock your Athlon 64 CPU, with useful tips that will please even users with some experience on the subject.


Inside AMD64 Architecture
May 16, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
An in-depth look at how CPUs based on AMD64 architecture work, like Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon 64 FX, Turion 64, Opteron and some Sempron models.


Inside Intel Core Microarchitecture
April 12, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
An in-depth look at the new microarchitecture that will be used by the new Intel CPUs to be released this year, codenamed Merom, Conroe and Woodcrest.


Inside Pentium M Architecture
January 4, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how Pentium M processor works.


Intel LaGrande Technology Explained
December 20, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about the new LaGrande Technology from Intel, which improves computer security and will be shipped on next generation Intel CPUs (Merom, Conroe and Woodcrest).


Intel EM64T Technology Explained
December 15, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about Intel’s 64-bit technology available on Pentium 4 6xx and Pentium D CPUs.


How Chips are Manufactured
November 24, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how chips like microprocessors, video processors, memories, chipsets etc are manufactured.


Athlon 64 Cores
October 25, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A quick guide to all Athlon 64 cores released to date: ClawHammer, NewCastle, Winchester, Venice and San Diego.


Inside Pentium 4 Architecture
October 18, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how Pentium 4 processor works.


How a CPU Works
September 26, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how a CPU works in an easy to follow language, including topics such as clock, memory cache, CPU block diagram, an overall view on the basic CPU units, pipeline, superscalar architecture, out-of-order execution and speculative execution.


How to Identify 64-bit Sempron CPUs
September 20, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to detect if your socket 754 Sempron CPU has the AMD 64-bit extensions (x86-64) or not.


How to Overclock a Socket 775 Pentium 4
September 15, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres and Daniel Barros
It is not so easy to overclock socket 775 Pentium 4 since Intel 915 and 925 chipsets have a protection against overclocking. Learn how to be successful in overclocking this type of CPU.


Sempron vs. Celeron D
September 8, 2005 - By Cássio Lima
Learn the main differences between Sempron from AMD and Celeron D from Intel, two processors targeted to the entry-level market.


How to Enable Cool’n’ Quiet Technology
April 26, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to enable AMD’s Cool’n’Quiet technology, present on Athlon 64 CPUs, which lowers the CPU temperature and system noise.


Sempron vs. Athlon XP
April 25, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres and Daniel Barros
What is the difference between Sempron and Athlon XP processors? Learn in this tutorial. Includes tables with specs of all Sempron and Athlon XP models.


How to Correctly Assemble PCs with Pentium 4 Prescott
March 16, 2005 - By Daniel Barros
Pentium 4 with Prescott core has new specs for cooling, case and power supply. A lot of people is assembling PCs using "old" products with their new Pentium 4 and the PC is overheating, slowing down or the power supply is simply burning.


Pentium 4 Thermal Throttle
March 10, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
What is the Thermal Throttling feature? Learn how to check if your processor is overheating using this feature.


On-Board Processors
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about on-board CPUs found on motherboards from PCChips, ECS and Amptron that use a bogus naming system.


Intel is going to Identify Their Processors Through Numbers
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the new numbering scheme that Intel is applying to their new processors.


Athlon XP Overclocking Tape
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about Speed Strip, a tape that you can install on your Athlon XP pins to unlock its clock multiplier.


Counterfeit Athlon XP Processors
November 4, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about counterfeit Athlon XP processors that reached the market and how to identify them.


All Pentium III Models
October 13, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
A series of quick reference tables containing the main specs of all Pentium III models released to date.


Activating the Hyper-Threading
October 12, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
See how to enable the HyperThreading tecnology on your PC.


How to Transform an Athlon XP into an Athlon MP
October 12, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
With a small modification on the body of the Athlon XP CPU you can transform it into an Athlon MP processor.




Everything You Need to Know About the Dual-, Triple-, and Quad-Channel Memory Architectures
November 2, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a look at how the dual-, triple-, and quad-channel memory architectures work and how to enable them in order to improve your computer’s performance.


Understanding RAM Timings
May 17, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn in detail what numbers like 7-7-7-21, 8-8-8-24, or 9-9-9-24 after the memory specification mean.


Everything You Need To Know About DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 Memories
August 27, 2009 - By Gabriel Torres
Curious about the technical differences between DDR3, DDR2 and DDR memories? In this tutorial we explain them all.


Corsair Flash Voyager: The Unbreakable Broke
December 26, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
You won’t believe this: our "unbrekable" Flash Voyager from Corsair broke. Take a look at the pictures to see what happened and also how we were able to recover the data that was stored on it.


How FB-DIMM Memories Work
December 23, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about the new FB-DIMM memory standard, created to increase the capacity and speed of the memory system.


How to Upgrade your Notebook Memory
September 4, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to upgrade your notebook memory.


DDR vs. GDDR Memories
July 20, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn the main differences between DDR (DDR2 and DDR3) and GDDR (GDDR2 and GDDR3) memories.


Memory Overclocking
June 19, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to overclock your RAM memory in order to increase your computer performance without spending a dime.


Memory Cards Tutorial
May 19, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn the differences between the several memory cards available for digital cameras on the market: Compact Flash (CF), Memory Stick (MS), MultiMediaCard (MMC), Secure Digital (SD), SmartMedia (SM) and xD.


Identifying Faked PC100 Memories
October 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Some PC100 SDRAM DIMM modules are in fact relabeled PC66 parts. Learn more about this problem.


Memory Upgrade
October 25, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the most common incompatibility cases when upgrading your RAM memory.




Intel Chipset Codenames Cross-Reference Table
April 19, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
A series of quick reference tables listing all codenames used by Intel chipsets and the corresponding commercial product name.


How to Find Out Your Motherboard’s Manufacturer and Model
September 5, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to find out your motherboard’s manufacturer and model, required information if you want to download a new BIOS, drivers, and manual for it.


Everything You Need to Know About Chipsets
August 2, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
What is a chipset? What are its functions? What is its importance? What is its influence in the computer’s performance? In this tutorial we will answer all of these questions and more.


Understanding All Voltage Configurations from the Motherboard
August 8, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
Confused about what each voltage configuration on the motherboard setup really means? Learn all about them in this updated tutorial.


Everything You Need to Know About The Motherboard Voltage Regulator Circuit
February 10, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
An in-depth explanation on how the motherboard voltage regulator circuit works, including components, phases and design. Updated.


How to Perform a BIOS Upgrade
July 27, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to upgrade your system BIOS.


Building an Infrared Transmitter for Your PC
May 9, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to build an infrared transmitter/receiver for your PC, in order to connect IR devices to it, like cell phones.


How To Desolder Components
July 9, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to correctly desolder electronic components from printed circuit boards like motherboards and video cards.


Customizing the BIOS Boot Logo
May 29, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to change the small EPA logo that appears every time you turn your PC on to anything you like: a small personal logo, your company logo, etc.


How to Install a Motherboard
May 25, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to correctly install a motherboard.


Small Details on Motherboards
May 6, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
In order to face competition more and more motherboard manufacturers are adding extra small features to their motherboards, such as fancy boxes, diagnostics display, two BIOS chips, etc. Take a look at what you can find today as small extra features.


Replacing the Motherboard Battery
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to replace the motherboard battery from both old and new motherboard models.


Your nForce 2 may be an nForce 2 400 Ultra
November 4, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Some nForce 2 SPP based motherboards have in fact the nForce 2 400 Ultra chipset. Check if this is your case.


Cloned Motherboards
November 4, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Many motherboard models from Amptron, Matsonic, Eurone and PCChips are actually relabeled models from ECS. In this tutorial we show a cross-reference table for the most popular models of cloned motherboards.


Chipset Aliases: TX Pro, VX Pro & Co.
October 31, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about relabeled chipsets used on PCChips motherboards, like TX Pro, TX Pro II, VX Pro, VX Pro II, HX Pro, BX Pro, VIA GRA, Xcell 2000, etc.


Explosive Motherboards
October 25, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn more about capacitors on the motherboard that leak or even explode.


BIOS Backup
October 17, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to backup the BIOS of your PC to recover it later if your PC is attacked by a virus or in the event of a bad BIOS upgrade.


Recovering Dead Motherboards Killed by the CIH Virus
October 17, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to reprogram BIOS chips erased by the CIH (a.k.a. Chernobyl or Spacefiller) virus. The describe procedure can also be used to recover your BIOS in the case of a bad BIOS upgrade.


Deciphering the BIOS Serial Number
October 13, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to decode the BIOS serial number and find out informations like the motherboard manufacturer, chipset and BIOS date.


BTX Motherboards
October 12, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the new BTX form factor.


Forgotten Motherboard Functions
August 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn more about functions like suspend to RAM, wake up on lan, wake up on ring, etc.


ITX Motherboards
August 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about the ITX form factor, introduced by VIA.


BIOS Setup
July 2, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about BIOS setup.



Inside the Macintosh SE
February 6, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a look at the hardware of the Macintosh SE, the fourth Mac to be released, back in 1987, as the successor to the Macintosh Plus.


How to Restore Old Computers to Their Original Color
January 30, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to restore plastic parts of old computers that have yellowed from their original color by using a homemade peroxide-based solution called Retr0bright.


How to Generate Floppy Disks for Old Macintosh Computers
January 22, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Did you buy an old Macintosh computer, but it didn’t come with programs and the operating system disks? In this tutorial, we will teach you how to generate them.


Inside the Macintosh Plus
January 2, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a look at the hardware of the Macintosh Plus, the third Mac to be released, back in 1986, as the successor to the Macintosh 512K.


Inside the Macintosh 512K
December 19, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take a look at the hardware of the Macintosh 512K, the second Mac to be released, back in 1985.


Inside the Macintosh 128K
December 17, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Today we are going to take an in-depth look at one of the most iconic computers of all times, the very first Macintosh.


Inside the Apple III
May 31, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take an in-depth look at the hardware of the Apple III computer from 1980 and see why it wasn’t successful.


Inside the Atari 2600
May 14, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take an in-depth look at one of the most iconic video game consoles of the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Atari 2600.


Inside the Magnavox Odyssey2
April 30, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Let’s take an in-depth look at the Magnavox Odyssey2 video game console and see the way we played in the late 1970s and early 1980s.



Testing the Security of Your Website – Part 3
November 5, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
On this part of our ”Testing the Security of Your Website“ series, we will cover data manipulation and SQL injections.


Testing the Security of Your Website – Part 2
October 24, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
On this part of our ”Testing the Security of Your Website“ series, we will cover emails, contact forms, and security through obscurity.


Testing the Security of Your Website – Part 1
October 21, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Do you own a website, blog, or forum? Learn how to audit its security in order to prevent bad guys from exploiting it. In this part, we will cover some basic information and procedures.


How the VDSL Connection Works
September 17, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
VDSL is another very popular type of DSL Internet connection, used by networks such as AT&T’s U-verse in the U.S. Let’s see how it works.


How the ADSL Connection Works
September 12, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
In this tutorial, we will teach you how the ADSL (more commonly known simply as ”DSL“ in the U.S.) connection works, including the latest ADSL2 and ADSL2+ technologies.


How the Cable TV is Used for Internet Access
September 10, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how the Internet connection using the cable TV works.


Migrating to Apache 2.4
May 28, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
In this tutorial we will explain everything you need to know to migrate from previous versions of the Apache webserver to the new 2.4 series.


Understanding Email Bounce Messages
May 20, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Sending an email and seeing the message bouncing back is frustrating. In this tutorial, we will explain the meaning of the most common bounce messages and how to fix the problem.


How to Optimize a MySQL Server
March 13, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to optimize a MySQL server to make your website run faster in this in-depth tutorial.


How TCP/IP Protocol Works - Part 2
April 10, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Complementing our previous tutorial, we will explain other protocols and other TCP/IP functionalities we didn’t cover before, like Telnet, SSH, TFTP, DHCP, DNS, ICMP, RIP, OSPF, BGP, ARP and more.


How TCP/IP Protocol Works - Part 1
March 28, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how the TCP/IP network protocol works.


How to Build a Wireless Network Without Using a Broadband Router
September 2, 2009 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to build your own wireless network without using a broadband router or an access point. Updated.


How to Build a Wireless Network Using a Broadband Router
September 1, 2009 - By Gabriel Torres
A complete guide on how to build your own wireless network using a wireless broadband router. Updated.


Basic Security in Wireless Networks
August 24, 2009 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to do after building your own small home or office network: changing the default password, how to upgrade the router firmware, how to enable encryption and which encryption to use.


How to Build a Web Server with PHP 5 and MySQL 5 Support
April 19, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Building a PHP 5 web server with MySQL 5 support isn’t as easy as it seems. PHP 5 doesn’t come with embedded support for MySQL, making it tricky to compile PHP 5. Read this step-by-step tutorial and avoid all the pitfalls you may face.


The OSI Reference Model for Network Protocols
March 22, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how network protocols work by studying the OSI reference model. Includes a correlation between TCP/IP and the OSI reference model.


How to Build a Network Using a Cross-Over Cable
March 2, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Did you know that is possible to build a small network between two computers by just connecting them with a very simple and inexpensive cable? Learn how.


How To Make P2P Programs to Work on Networks Using a Broadband Router
February 15, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to configure your broadband router to enable P2P file sharing programs to work on your network.


Anatomy of a Broadband Router
February 5, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Ever wondered what is inside a broadband Internet router? In this tutorial we will show you what is inside the box!


How to Discover Your Network Card Real Manufacturer
January 16, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
Learn how to discover who really manufactured your network card in order to get support and updated drivers.


Connecting Two PCs Using a USB-USB Cable
November 16, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to connect two PCs using an USB-USB cable to transfer files and share your Internet connection.


How to Share Folders and Printers on Your Network
November 14, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to share files and printers on your home or office network.


How to Build a Small Network Using a Broadband Router
November 13, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to build your own network using a broadband router, allowing you to share Internet access, files and printers among your computers.


How Gigabit Ethernet Works
October 10, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about Gigabit Ethernet.


Introduction to Optical Fibers
June 21, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres and Cássio Lima
Learn about optical fibers basic anatomy and types.


Protecting Your Computer Against Invasions
May 10, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Basic procedures to protect your computer from being attacked by hackers.


How to Transform a SpeedStream 5200 modem into a Router
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to transform your SpeedStream 5200 ADSL modem into a router!


Testing Your Computer Security
October 13, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to test your PC or your network for security breaches.


V.92 Standard
August 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn more about the new V.92 standard for 56 K modems.



Fixing the IE8 Black Bar Bug
September 23, 2009 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to remedy the IE8 bug where the menu and the favorites bar go black with no apparent reason.


How to Identify Japanese Electrolytic Capacitors
July 31, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Solid and Japanese capacitors provide a higher quality over regular electrolytic caps. Learn how to recognize Japanese electrolytic capacitors.


What to Do If Your Computer Doesn’t Turn On
April 22, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn what you should do if you computer doesn’t turn on in order to identify and solve the problem.


What’s New on Windows Vista For Hardware Enthusiasts
February 28, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
A complete description of all new hardware-related features found on Windows Vista.


How to Buy a PC Without Being Fooled
February 2, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Tips on how to buy a PC without being fooled and how to check if the computer you’ve bought really has the parts you ordered.


Introduction to Logic Gates
October 21, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about logic gates, the heart and blood of digital electronics.


RoHS Explained
October 11, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about RoHS, the European environmental law that will affect the computer industry.


Information on “Unbranded“ Cards
May 23, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to discover the manufacturer of an "unbranded" device (a.k.a. "generic") in order to find its manual and drivers.



How to Discover Your Power Supply’s Real Manufacturer
November 15, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
Several famous PC power supply brands don’t really manufacture their products. Learn how to discover who is the real manufacturer of your power supply. Updated to include a new powerful trick.


Understanding the 80 Plus Certification
November 4, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about the 80 Plus certification, their methodology, and the different certification levels (Standard, Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Platinum). Updated to include the new Platinum certification for 115 V units.


Everything You Need to Know About Power Supply Protections
January 18, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
In this tutorial we are going to present an in-depth explanation on how all the main power supply protections really work.


Everything You Need to Know About Batteries
December 22, 2009 - By Sandy Berger
Everything consumers need to know about batteries.


Everything You Need to Know About Power Supplies
May 29, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about power supplies, including cables, connectors, efficiency, PFC, protections, form factors, ripple & noise, voltage stability, maximum power, virtual rails and much more.


Anatomy of Surge Suppressors
October 9, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about surge suppressors, how they look like inside, the components they use and some buying tips.


Anatomy of Switching Power Supplies
October 25, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to learn about the power supply internals: how it works, what are its main components and how to identify them. Including block diagrams, schematics and lots of pictures from inside the power supply. Completely updated.


How To Replace Your Power Supply
August 8, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Step-by-step fully illustrated guide on how to replace your PC power supply with a new one.


Grounding
October 6, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about grounding and how to correctly setup a grounding system for your PC.


UPS
August 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn more about UPS, Uninterruptible Power Supply.




Anatomy of SSD Units
January 22, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
See how an SSD (Solid State Drive) unit looks like inside, what are its main components and how they work. Updated to explain edurance and life-span expectation.


Everything You Need to Know About Serial ATA
June 27, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about Serial ATA (SATA) hard disk drive technology is here. Updated to include important information on the SATA-150/SATA-300 jumper.


How to Install a Floppy Disk Drive
November 17, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide showing you how to install (or replace) a floppy disk drive.


Hard Disk Drives Capacity Limits
October 1, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Your system doesn’t recognize your new hard drive’s full capacity? Learn all capacity barriers that you may face when installing a new hard disk drive on your system.


How to Setup a RAID System
October 23, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to setup a RAID system on your PC in order to increase your hard disk drive performance or to improve data reliability.


How Perpendicular Recording Works
June 26, 2006 - By Cássio Lima
Everything you need to know about the new perpendicular recording hard disk drive technology.


NCQ (Native Command Queuing) and TCQ (Tagged Command Queuing) Explained
April 16, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about NCQ and TCQ command queuing tecnologies, which improve the hard disk drive performance.


Cleaning Up Your Windows-Based PC
March 15, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide on how to clean your PC for freeing up hard disk space and improving its performance.


Data Recovery Myths
November 12, 2005 - By Edson Buriche Coutinho
Have you ever heard about freezing the hard drive, opening it in a bathroom full of steam or swapping its logic board in order to revive a dead hard drive? These are just a few of the several data recovery myths we have debunked in this tutorial.


Solving Problems in Windows XP File System
September 16, 2005 - By Cássio Lima
Learn how to solve Windows XP file system problems.


Anatomy of a Floppy Disk Drive
August 16, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Take a look how a floppy disk drive looks like inside and learn about its main components.


Anatomy of an Optical Drive
August 10, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Ever wondered what is inside an optical drive? In this tutorial you will learn all about the main optical drive components.


Anatomy of a Hard Disk Drive
August 4, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Ever wondered what is inside a hard disk drive? In this tutorial we will show you the main hard drive components, both internal and external.


How to Install Hard Drives over 8 GB in Older PCs
August 3, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
If you install a HD over 8 GB in an older PC it will format it as 8 GB. Learn how to correct this problem.


How to Really Delete your Files
May 11, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
When you delete a file or format your hard drive your data isn’t really deleted and can be recovered. If your have sensitive data, you must learn how to really erase data from your hard drive.


How to Buy a DVD Recorder
February 21, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Some tips on how to buy a DVD recorder.


Transforming your Single Layer DVD Recorder into a Double Layer One
February 16, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Some 4.7 GB DVD recorders can be transformed into 8.5 GB DVD recorders. Learn how.


Unlocking your DVD Unit
February 15, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to break the area code protection that DVD units have, allowing you to play any DVD disc from any country in the world in your PC.


Recovering Scratched CDs
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to recover scratched CDs.


How to Create a Bootable CD-ROM
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to create a bootable CD-ROM.


DVD Media
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn the difference between the several DVD media types available at the market: DVD-RAM, DVD+R, DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RW, etc.


How to Transform a CD-ROM Drive into a Car CD Player
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to transform a CD-ROM drive into a car CD player.


Everything you need to know about RAID
November 20, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
RAID is not target to servers anymore. Even mainstream motherboards are coming with this feature nowadays. Learn what it is and are the advantages of using this system.


Measuring CD-ROM and DVD-ROM Performance
November 4, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to correctly measure your CD-ROM and DVD-ROM performance.


Everything You Need to Know About CD-R Media
October 27, 2004 - By Alberto Cozer
Understand in depth how a CD-R media is made and why there are media that is better than others.


Explosive CD-ROM
October 25, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Some CD media literally explodes inside the CD-ROM drive. Learn why this happens.


Everything you Need to Know About ATA-66, ATA-100 and ATA-133 Hard Disks
October 23, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to achieve the maximum performance from ATA-66, ATA-100 and ATA-133 hard disks. It is not just a matter of plugging in your new hard drive.


Recovering Hard Disks Erased by the CIH Virus
October 17, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
How to recover hard disks erased by the CIH (a.k.a. Chernobyl or Spacefiller) virus.


Recovering Hard Disks with Bad Blocks
October 13, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to remove "bad blocks" from hard disks.



AMD ATI Radeon Chips Comparison Table
October 8, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
A table comparing the basic technical specs of all AMD ATI Radeon graphics chips available on the market, from the Radeon 9200 to the Radeon R9 290X. Updated to include the Radeon HD 8000, R7, and R9 series.


NVIDIA GeForce Chips Comparison Table
July 10, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
A table comparing the basic technical specs from all NVIDIA graphics chips available on the market, from the GeForce 4 MX 420 to the GeForce GTX Titan. Updated to include the GeForce GTX 760.


How to Install and Configure a Dedicated PhysX Video Card
April 17, 2013 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to repurpose an old NVIDIA-based video card to be used as a dedicated PhysX processor in order to improve the experience inside games based on this technology.


Video Connectors Tutorial
March 20, 2012 - By Gabriel Torres
Everything you need to know about video connectors found on PCs and CE products: RF, Composite (RCA), S-Video, Component, RGB, VGA, DVI, HDMI, and DisplayPort.


Introducing the Panel Self Refresh Technology
September 15, 2011 - By Gabriel Torres
VESA, the Video Standards Association behind DisplayPort, is incorporating a feature that will save battery life on laptops with embedded DisplayPort 1.3 (eDP 1.3) interface. Let’s see how it works.


Intel Integrated Graphics Comparison Table
October 12, 2010 - By Gabriel Torres
A series of quick reference tables with the basic 3D video specs of Intel chipsets and CPUs with integrated graphics.


How to Use The SPDIF Connector Available on GeForce Video Cards
August 8, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
Some GeForce video cards have an SPDIF connector. Learn when and how to use it.


Everything You Need To Know About LCD Monitors
July 22, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
All the basic features of LCD video monitors you need to know before buying one.


DirectX Versions
July 2, 2008 - By Gabriel Torres
What are the main differences between the several DirectX versions released? Find out in this tutorial.


How to Install a Second Video Monitor to Your PC
November 12, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to check if you computer accepts a second monitor without the need of any extra hardware part and how to physically install a second monitor to your PC.


Testing the 3D Performance of Your PC With Quake 4
June 26, 2007 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to use Quake 4 to measure the performance of a PC. Updated to include information about the new demo included on the latest 1.4.2 patch.


How to Overclock Your Video Card
November 28, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step-by-step guide to how to overclock your video card in order to achieve a higher gaming performance, including several tips and tricks.


How to Use Battefield 2142 to Benchmark your PC
November 10, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to use Battlefield 2142 to benchmark your PC and also how to create your own Battlefield 2142 demo.


High Definition TV Basics
June 12, 2006 - By Steve Kovsky
Everything you need to know about HDTV explained.


How To Convert VHS Tapes Into DVDs – Part 1
April 25, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A step by step guide on how to convert VHS tapes into DVDs. This part covers the hardware setup.


Inside HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface)
February 13, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
A more in-depth look at the HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) connection, used by DVD, HD-DVD and Blu-Ray players, high-def cable/satellite converters and HDTV sets.


Video Compression Basics
February 1, 2006 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn the basics about video compression: what delta frames and key frames are.


Enabling 2D Enhancements on GeForce 6 and 7 Series
July 23, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
GeForce series 6 and 7 chips have a processor for enhancing 2D videos, but it is not automatically enabled. Learn how to enable it.


3D Glossary
April 26, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Confused with so many hard to understand quality configuration options on your favorite game? Learn here what the most common 3D-related terms mean.


TurboCache and HyperMemory
April 21, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Watch out to not be deceived by NVIDIA’s TurboCache and ATI’s HyperMemory technologies. Boards with these technologies are being announced as 256 MB memory while they only have 64 MB or 128 MB memory.


Transforming your Radeon 9800 Pro into a Radeon 9800 XT
February 18, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
You can tranform your Radeon 9800 Pro into a Radeon 9800 XT with a BIOS upgrade. Learn how.


Testing the 3D Performance of Your PC with Doom 3 and Far Cry
February 16, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to measure the 3D performance of your PC using the two of the most "heavy" games available today: Doom 3 and Far Cry.


TV, FM, and Video Capture Boards Glossary
February 16, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn the most common terms related to boards with TV tuner, radio tuner, and video capture functions.


Counterfeit GeForce 2 MX 400 Boards
January 18, 2005 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn about counterfeit GeForce 2 MX 400 video boards that reached the market some time ago.


Video Card BIOS Upgrade
November 26, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to upgrade the BIOS of your video card to improve its performance.


How to Transform your Old GeForce into a Quadro Chip
November 24, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Learn how to transform your old GeForce 256, 2 MX, 2 GTS or 4 Ti into a Quadro chip, which is faster.


Transforming a Radeon 9500 into a Radeon 9700
October 25, 2004 - By Gabriel Torres
Yes, it is true. You can transform your Radeon 9500 into a Radeon 9700. Learn how.



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